Hagley Museum & Library, Manuscripts and Archives Department P.O. Box 3630 298 Buck Road East Wilmington, DE 19807 Phone: (302) 658-2400 www.hagley.org/library
Finding aid encoded by ArchProteus2012
Finding aid written in English
Hagley Museum & Library, Manuscripts and Archives Department
Pahlmann, William C., 1900-1987
William Pahlmann Papers
Approximately 1,200 linear feet
The William Pahlmann Papers provide a rich insight into the world of interior design in the middle of the twentieth century. Pahlmann (1900-1987) was well known for his use of bold colors, textures and mix of antique and modern furnishings. Stressed in all of his work, were the conventions of comfort and functionality as well as his clients' individual tastes. The William Pahlmann Papers are organized into thirty unique series of varying sizes. The papers are organized into correspondence, publicity files, renderings, samples, artifacts, design plans, and client invoices.
Collection materials are in English
Scope and Content
The William Pahlmann records are perhaps the most comprehensive archive of an interior design practice of their period. While there are many materials from Pahlmann's earlier years and personal activities, the bulk of the records are from the office of William Pahlmann Associates during the three decades of its existence, 1946-1976. They cover every step from initial client solicitation and contact, through sketches and presentation boards to working drawings and post-completion publicity. The archive also includes the myriad product catalogs and physical samples collected by the firm in the process of formulating and executing its designs. The archive illustrates both the business sense the firm used to build networks of clients, manufacturers and suppliers, the esthetic sense it employed in its acts of artistic creation, and its role in the evolution of interior design as a profession.
Like many gay men of his generation, Pahlmann's homosexuality was an open secret to those close to him and "none of your business" to strangers or casual acquaintances. While Pahlmann was careful to keep his personal and professional lives separate, it is possible to get some sense of how Pahlmann dealt with his identity by carefully reading between the lines of some of the series, particularly Series 2, Publicity Materials and Series 8, Publicity Books.
William Caroll Pahlmann was one of the leading American interior designers of the mid-twentieth century. Pahlmann was known for an "eclectic" style that combined materials and decorative elements from many time periods and cultures, everything from antiques to modern laminates, and for bold color and texture combinations. This approach typified much of the private residential and commercial construction of the period and stood in contrast to the austere modernism of contemporary architects. Pahlmann also played a major role in organizing and elevating the status of interior design as a profession.
Pahlmann was born on December 12, 1900, at Pleasant Mound, Ill. His father died when he was six years old, and his mother moved the family to San Antonio, Texas, where she ran a boarding house. By age ten, Pahlmann had begun to develop an aptitude for freehand drawing and take an interest in flower-arranging at the local Baptist Church. After graduating from high school, Pahlmann found rather improbable employment as a traveling salesman for the San Antonio Sewer Pipe Company but used his time on the road to complete a 48-part correspondence course from "Arts and Decoration" magazine. In 1927 he moved to New York City and enrolled at the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts, later the Parsons School of Design, where he studied color and interior decoration and paid his bills by dancing in Broadway musicals. After two years, Pahlmann received a scholarship to study at the school's Paris Atelier under renowned designer Mildred Irby.
After graduation Pahlmann worked as a freelance decorator in New York. Although these were the worst years of the Great Depression, he was able to secure commissions where his eye-catching designs brought him increasing public attention. Hard times probably motivated Pahlmann to hone his natural gifts for self-promotion, which would later be essential to his building a reliable client base. One such commission was an apartment for Dorothy Paley, the first wife of CBS founder William S. Paley that featured twin beds with headboards fashioned from hand-carved Portuguese ox-yokes.
In 1936, as the Depression eased somewhat, Pahlmann was hired by Walter Hoving to head the interior decorating and home furnishings department of the Lord & Taylor department store, where he established the use of the complete model room as the best method for displaying home furnishings. At the same time, Pahlmann began a lifelong practice of traveling extensively, scouting various world cultures as potential sources of decorative objects and design motifs. By the eve of World War II, Pahlmann was designing his own lines of fabrics and carpeting. His close relationship with Hoving led to later commissions for the interiors of many Bonwit Teller department stores.
At the start of World War II, Pahlmann volunteered for the Army Air Corps after completing a Works Progress Administration course on camouflage. He went on to develop camouflage techniques and teach at the Jefferson Barracks Camouflage School in St. Louis, and then at the Overseas Replacement Depot training camp at Greensboro, N.C., where he also decorated the officers' club. In a 1984 interview, he described one of his demonstrations of camouflage:
"We staged mock assaults on barracks and towns. I built a town in the south of France. We had great big two-story houses, all beautiful French architecture. Then we attacked the village, with recordings of bombs going off. And this is where the camouflage came in--with the pull of a string the whole house would collapse and reveal an anti-aircraft gun emplacement. It was all to deceive the eye, and quite a show."
As the war entered its last phase, Pahlmann toured the Pacific Theatre lecturing to servicemen on postwar job opportunities, finishing his service with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Pahlmann was proud of his war record and supported the GI Bill and other efforts to smooth the return of veterans to civilian life. He developed a system of "Decorating by air," in which rooms were prefabricated in New York and flown to the site by former Air Corps pilots.
Returning to New York, Pahlmann established the office of William Pahlmann Associates in 1946, and it quickly became one of the leading interior design firms in the city, responsible for a wide range of commercial and residential work. Most of Pahlmann's clients were based in New York and much of his work was located in the Greater New York region or places where New Yorkers traveled and vacationed, such as south Florida and the Caribbean. Pahlmann decorated the city apartments and country or vacation houses of the New York elite, both well-known figures from finance, entertainment and the arts, and limelight-shunning real estate developers and building contractors. Pahlmann drew other commissions from his Texas roots and St. Louis war service.
Pahlmann's design philosophy was to create spaces that were both functional and comfortable for those who used them and reflected their personal needs, tastes and personalities. Pahlmann insisted on interviewing or soliciting essays from prospective clients to elicit this information, and he demanded input from spouses, children and any others who would call his designs home. A Pahlmann interior was above all both comfortable and evocative and meant to be lived in as well as looking good in photographs. It followed that Pahlmann worked primarily on private residences and on the sorts of commercial public spaces (e.g., stores, restaurants) where people from many walks of life might enjoy a good time rather than receive an artistic or ideological statement from above.
However, Pahlmann was in such high demand that he could afford to choose his clients and was loath to cast his design pearls before swine. He refused to work for permissive parents of unruly children whom he believed were sure to ruin his handiwork in short order, and he shunned owners of house cats for the same reason. Although clients and the general public might be led to a finer appreciation for the decorator's art and its principles of taste, actual excellence in design had to be the work of a trained professional.
Some of Pahlmann's most significant and reputation-making work was commissioned by Jerome Brody's firm Restaurant Associates, Inc., pioneers in high-concept dining experiences. It ran from the ultra-sophisticated Four Seasons in the Seagram Building to the campy, over-the-top Forum of the Twelve Caesars, with its waiters dressed like Roman soldiers. Although architect Philip Johnson usually garners all the credit for the Four Seasons, much of the work is actually Pahlmann's, including the idea of changing the entire decor to match the season. Both Brody and Pahlmann adhered to a concept of total design that encompassed everything from the cuisine through the wall treatments and furniture down to the table settings and the uniforms of the wait staff. Restaurant Associates secured the food concession for the new Pan Am Building of 1959, for which Pahlmann produced an ersatz English pub, Charlie Brown's Ale & Chop House, an Italian restaurant, La Trattoria, and Zum Zum, a German-themed lunch counter specializing in wursts and cheeses. The latter proved so successful that several others were opened around the city. Pahlmann also designed many of the public rooms in the New York Hilton hotel, and the Top-of-the Fair (later Terrace on the Park) at the 1964-65 World's Fair, as well as redecorating the entire 39th floor of the Hotel Pierre for the 1966 visit of Prince Philip.
"A Matter of Taste"
Pahlmann lectured extensively throughout his career, appeared on radio and television programs, wrote a widely syndicated newspaper column, "A Matter of Taste," between 1962 and 1973, and authored "The Pahlmann Book of Interior Design," which was issued in three editions between 1958 and 1968. In addition to his wealthy clients, Pahlmann found a ready popular audience in the newly-prosperous middle and lower-middle classes, who during the Depression and war had been too concerned with getting by to spend much time trying to observe canons of good taste. In this role of tastemaker, Pahlmann was part of the growing style-consciousness and increasing consumerist orientation of ordinary American people.
Pahlmann also played a major part in elevating the professional status of the interior decorator, who some might class with window dressers, hair stylists, or pastry chefs, to that of the interior designer, on a par with architects, industrial designers, and artists. This change was mirrored in the 1961 name change of their professional association from American Institute of Decorators to American Institute of Interior Designers. Pahlmann gave considerable time to the AID, serving as president of its New York Chapter, and in encouraging and mentoring young designers. In 1958, he helped found the AID's Resources Council to promote cooperation among designers, manufacturers and distributors with the goal of increasing both the demand for and supply of tastefully designed home furnishings. The AID rewarded Pahlmann with its Elsie de Wolf Award in 1964 and its Award of Merit in 1966.
In addition to commissions for entire interiors, William Pahlmann Associates designed furniture, fabrics, wall coverings, tile and other accessories manufactured by others for direct sale. The profits of the Pahlmann office came from the sale of these furnishings, not decorating advice. The 1949 "Momentum" line of furniture featured large semi-pneumatic wheels for easier movement, and this was followed by the "Hastings Square" line, designed in 1952 for the Grand Rapids Bookcase and Chair Company and still popular a half-century later. Pahlmann designed the "Lively Arts" collection of area rugs for the Lees carpet company. He also worked with the Joseph Bancroft & Sons Company to market its "Everglaze" line of fabrics and designed showrooms for DuPont in the Empire State Building and Armstrong Cork in Rockefeller Center. Pahlmann opened his own New York showroom in 1952 and staged a series of "Pahlmann's Previews" to display his latest designs.
In 1956, Pahlmann purchased a Bauhaus-modern country house at Bedford, N.Y., on the fringe of the metropolitan area, which he named "Pahlmannia" and rebuilt to his personal taste. "Pahlmannia" became the focus of AID and charity tours and society parties to which Pahlmann's invited friends and clients.
Later Years, Death, and Legacy
By the late 1960s, Pahlmann was reducing his design workload but continuing to write and be active in the AID. After 1971, Pahlmann was spending more time in his new apartment in San Antonio and his house, "Sagitario," in Guadalajara, Mexico, although he retained a New York apartment until 1985. His last big commissions, begun in 1971, involved the interiors of three new buildings at Texas A&M University, the Memorial Student Center, the Rudder Theatre Complex, and the 12-story J. Earl Rudder Conference and Events Center. By this time, Pahlmann's style was becoming dated, and students found the buildings "extravagant," and "unfriendly." When the projects were completed in 1976, Pahlmann closed his office and retired. Suffering from arteriosclerosis in his later years, Pahlmann died at Guadalajara on November 6, 1987.
A good deal of Pahlmann's commissions have been demolished, including the Forum of the Twelve Caesars, or altered by subsequent renovations. Most of them being private dwellings or commercial enterprises such as hotels, restaurants and nightclubs, they were much more vulnerable to changing trends and needs or proprietor turnover than landmark or ceremonial buildings. To twenty-first century eyes accustomed to a more polished machine esthetic, Pahlmann's interiors often look tacky, overly busy or garish, much as the Modernists abominated the Victorians who had come before. Some of his later work is now tainted by association with Sixties and Seventies excesses and that era's strange, crude synthetic materials and colors. Yet, if Orthodox Modernism has managed to retain its hold on the high ground, much of the American built environment is still constructed along lines of which Pahlmann would no doubt have approved. The specifics of ever-changing tastes aside, Pahlmann wielded an enormous influence on America's evolving consumer culture during the long postwar boom, and his work remains a snapshot of burgeoning style-consciousness in a prosperous and optimistic time, when even hot dog stands might have panache.
A biographical sketch of William Pahlmann is also available on Wikipedia (click here)
Sources and External Links
Raimond, Gina Marie. 'A Matter of Taste:' The Interior Designer William C. Pahlmann and the Creation of an American Style in the Post-World War II Era. Master's Thesis, The Smithsonian Associates and the Corcoran College of Art and Design, 2010.
Smith, C. Ray. "William Pahlmann at 84; a birthday salute to a celebrated designer." Interior Design Dec. 1984: 192+. Academic OneFile. Web. 10 August 2011.
History, TAMU Facilities
Conditions Governing Access
Collection is available for research
Upon closing his office and retiring, William Pahlmann donated the firm's records and personal papers that had accumulated there to the library of the Winterthur Museum. Winterthur processed only a portion of the records and in 2006 transferred them to the Hagley Museum and Library, where the entire collection was processed and opened in the summer of 2012. Pahlmann donated a smaller collection of materials, including his personal library and color slides of his completed works, to the Technical Reference Center of Texas A&M University, the site of his last commissions.
Gift from the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Inc., November 15, 2006 (originally donated to Winterthur by William Pahlmann in 1976).
Processed by Christopher T. Baer, Lucas Clawson, Andrew Engel, Kenton Jaehnig, and Elizabeth Jones.
The National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) provided financial support for the arrangement and description of these materials.